Every day, hundreds of local residents enter what is commonly referred to as the little Siberia and hear the heavy steel door clang shut behind them, confining them in the largest maximum security prison in New York state.
To some, the prison is simply what lies behind the miles of gray concrete walls that rest along the rolling, Dannemora hills, and yet to many Northeast residents, Clinton Correctional Facility serves not only as a place of employment, but as part of a longtime family livelihood tradition. "At one time, just about everyone who lived in the village worked here," said Peter Light, a retired correctional officer and founder of the Clinton Correctional Facility museum, located inside the building.
When it all began
The prison was established in 1845 after a period of steady unrest in New York. The small town of Dannemora was soon chosen as the third site for a state prison due to its prime location in the valley, the iron mines, and the hills of Lyon Mountain. It began as a small, outpost prison with a few small buildings surrounded by a wooden stockade fence.
As the number of inmates continued to rise, the number of renovations and security measures increased to accommodate the growing population. For example, the surrounding wall that was first a wooden fence was soon reconstructed and built out of stone. According to Light, all the old stone cut for the original wall came from Lyon Mountain. Years later, as the prison continued to expand, the stone wall was replaced by high concrete walls, complete with enclosed guard towers.
Clinton Correctional was initially intended to house approximately five hundred inmates, and has since grown to hold more than 2,700, while employing over 1,400 officers. Due to the lack of transportation when the prison was constructed, employees were initially required to live in the village so they would be close in the event of a problem. As advances in transportation began, more local residents from outside of Dannemora began working at the facility. Soon, the prison became a traditional job opportunity for many local families. "At one time, just about everyone who lived in the village worked here."
Attraction of Dannemora for criminals during the late 1800s
As tuberculosis began sweeping across the nation, Dannemora soon became the location of choice for many criminals. Many inmates fought off death as they became infected with tuberculosis, and doctors recommended that they be shipped upstate. The fresh air of the Adirondacks was known to help tuberculosis patients breath more easily. By 1941, the demand for a larger hospital on site led to the construction of the current Dannemora State Hospital.
"Inmates would come from all over New York to get a breath of fresh air."
The new hospital was built to accommodate two hundred inmates and served as a general doctor's office, a psychiatric facility, and tuberculosis hospital. After the rise of new medication during World War II, the number of tuberculosis patients at the prison slowly began to decline. The hospital still exists today and continues its daily operations as a general hospital and dental facility.
Disciplinary practices inside the prison
Disciplinary practices at the prison were much harsher in the 1800s. Initially, there were no bathing facilities and inmates were forced to wear the degrading stripped uniform, walk in lockstep, and spend the day in silence. Some officers grew fond of the leather paddle and tied unruly inmates to the floor and beat them for their offenses.
By 1900, many forms of the barbaric corporal punishment methods were abandoned, with the exception of the electric chair. Originally, the electric chair was seen as a more humane method of execution than the noose. A total of twenty-six men were executed in the chair before it was abolished at the prison in 1913. New state legislation eliminated the executions at Dannemora and required that all future ones take place at Sing Sing prison in New York City. Death by execution ended completely in New York state in 1965. Solitary confinement, however, still exists at the prison today.
Fires, riots, and rebellion
Since almost the beginning, the prison has been plagued by a series of fires and life-threatening rebellions. Several officers have been killed and injured as they fought to protect their friends, inmates, and innocent community members who live outside the walls. The 1929 riot is the most infamous altercation between inmates and guards in the prison history.
According to official documentation and a New York Times article, the largest riot in prison history occurred on July 22, 1929, when approximately 1,300 inmates charged the prison walls in a desperate escape attempt. After setting fire to lumber and buildings, the angry convicts soon took their aggression out on the guards. Three guards were shot and killed during the riot, while others were captured, stoned, and beaten. As the riot continued through the afternoon hours, prison officials called upon the help of state troopers and the 20th infantry. Many inmates surrendered after they saw the troopers arrive with a wide array of weaponry, including grenades, guns, and ammunition, while approximately one hundred inmates barricaded themselves in the tailor shop. Finally, when presented with a violent ultimatum from the warden, the inmates also surrendered before the guards needed the assistance of extra forces.
As the years continued, the number of violent and deadly incidents also grew. Throughout the decades, many guards have lost their lives during their service to the prison, as they tried to maintain the order behind the sometimes deadly walls.
Several fires have also devastated the prison and led to the "big house" era of reconstruction. The most recent major fire destroyed the dairy farm on the grounds in 1998. The damage was so extensive that the barn will not likely be replaced on the prison grounds because of the considerable cost to replace it.
The industry inside the confines
In the beginning, iron mining was the main operation of the prison, with three main mines scattered within the structure's walls. Inmates would dig deep into the rich mountain soil in search for iron.
By 1877, as the iron value depreciated and through political interference, iron mining soon became a forgotten memory at the prison. Still, the state wanted to provide employment for the convicts and soon created additional industries at the jail. Throughout the years, convicts have performed many jobs inside the gated community; from the daily maintenance and repairs, to making shoes and sewing uniforms to send to other state institutions.
The prison's affect in New York
Since its construction, the prison has had an immense impact on New York, particularly in the communities which surround Dannemora. For over a century, the facility has played an intricate role in the lives of many families and for the judicial system in New York state.
The Village of Dannemora museum’s is open by appoitment.
For more information on Village of Dannemora and Clinton Correctional history please visit the following the links.
Village History & Pictures